Host weight: 12 000 kg
The working principle, main structure, performance characteristics and underground industrial test of ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig. The drilling rig was successfully developed and put into use, adding a new way for uphill excavation of steeply inclined coal rocks.
During the uphill excavation of steeply inclined coal and rock strata in China's coal mines, such as the construction of open cuts and gangues, due to poor construction conditions and low mechanization, etc., the slow speed, poor safety and low efficiency of the tunneling directly affected the development of production And economic benefits. The ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig, which was successfully developed by the Chongqing Branch of China Coal Research Institute, solves the above problems.
1 Drilling rig requirements for steep hill and rock formation
(1) The external dimensions are adapted to the conditions of the well and meet the requirements for transportation and use;
(2) Sufficient power to drill through a steep section of steeply inclined coal and rock formations at one time;
(3) The diameter of the final hole meets the requirements for use;
(4) The final hole position error is small and can be accurately positioned;
(5) Drilling in coal rock formations;
(6) It meets the requirements of relevant safety regulations and can be used in mines with different gas levels.
2 The working principle and main structure and function of the rig
2.1 Working principle of rig
ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig uses the drilling method to break coal rock layers to form holes, that is, the cutting tool in the drill bit is rotated under the rotation torque, and at the same time, the cutting tool breaks the coal rock to form holes. The rotary motion of the drill is generated by a 18.5 kW electric motor, which is transmitted to the hexagonal drive shaft after being decelerated by the transmission gearbox, and drives the hexagonal sleeve to rotate. After deceleration, the power is transmitted to the drill and the bit. The rig is equipped with two output speeds. It is used for drilling coal holes and other small holes at high speed, and used for rock drilling and reaming at low speed. The feed motion of the drill bit is realized by hydraulic transmission. The 7.5 kW motor on the hydraulic pump station drives the dual gear pump to generate two different pressures and different flows of pressure oil. One is a high pressure and small flow, which is used for the normal feeding of the feed cylinder; The other is low pressure and large flow, which is used for fast adjustment of the feed cylinder.
2.2 The main structure and function of the rig
ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig is mainly composed of four parts: pumping station, control box, main machine and drilling tools, and can be equipped with special electric control system according to requirements, see Figure 1 for details.
1—electric control system; 2—pump station; 3—control box; 4—main machine; 5—gas sensor; 6—drilling tool
(1) The pump station is one of the main power sources for the ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig. It consists of auxiliary motors, fuel tanks, double gear pumps, relief valves, oil filters, coolers and other components. The two channels of pressure oil produced by the pumping station provide power for the feed cylinder, support cylinder, etc., and realize the feed movement of the drilling tool.
(2) The control box is the control mechanism of ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig. It consists of manual directional valve, multi-directional directional valve, throttle valve, rotary motor control switch, oil pump motor control switch, pressure gauge and water valve. . The handles of the manual reversing valve, multi-way reversing valve and throttle valve can be used to control the expansion and contraction of the feed cylinder, the advancing and retreating of the drilling tool, the normal drilling speed regulation and the rapid speed adjustment.
(3) The main unit is composed of transmission gearbox, power head, frame, base and other components. The transmission gearbox is the deceleration device of the drilling rig, and the power head is the power output part of the drilling rig. The transmission gearbox and the power head are installed on the frame. A feeding oil cylinder is installed on the frame to support the oil cylinder to realize the feeding movement of the drilling tool and stabilize the drilling rig. The machine base is the main load-bearing component and installation foundation of the rig.
(4) Drilling tools are the main working parts of a rock rig. They consist of drill rods, drill bits, positioners, etc. The drill rod transmits torque and axial pressure to the drill bit, so that the cutting tools in the drill bit cut the broken coal rock to form a hole. The positioner has the function of supporting the drill rod and righting the hole position, so that the drill rod does not bend in the hole, and the accuracy of the final hole position is guaranteed. The drilling rig is equipped with two types of drill bits. When drilling in coal seams and soft rocks, a multi-level tower-type drill bit inlaid with cemented carbide, that is, a coal drill bit is used. When drilling in hard rock, a cone bit is used.
(5) The electric control system has functions such as over-current, short-circuit protection and wind power lockout. When the gas exceeds the limit and there is no ventilation, the drilling rig cannot be started to protect personnel and equipment.
3 Technical parameters and characteristics of ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig
3.1 Main technical parameters
| Drilling diameter / mm |
Reaming diameter / mm
Drilling depth / m
Adapted to rock's Platts coefficient Drilling inclination / (¡ã)
Output speed of power head / r . Min -1
Power head output torque / N.m
Drilling thrust / kN
Reaming force / kN
Normal feed rate / m . Min -1
Normal return speed / m . Min -1
Shunting speed / m . Min -1
Drill rod size / mm ¡Á mm
Power of main motor / kW
Auxiliary motor power / kW
Host dimensions / mm ¡Á mm ¡Á mm
Total weight / kg
300 (coal lane) 311 (rock lane)
600 (coal alley) 500 (rock alley)
150 (coal lane) 100 (rock lane)
f ＜ 12
45 ～ 90
37 (first gear) 84 (second gear)
4 500 (first gear) 2 000 (second gear)
89 ¡Á 676
2 700 ¡Á 1 825 ¡Á 2 043
3.2 Drilling characteristics
(1) The drilling rig uses two hole-forming methods to break the rock into holes, that is, a certain diameter drill hole is first constructed from the lower horizontal roadway (inlet airway or machine roadway) and the horizontal roadway (return airway). Replace the drill bit with a reaming drill bit, and then ream the hole from top to bottom until the expansion is completed.
(2) Drilling can be performed in an inclination range of 45 to 90 ¡ã. After taking necessary measures, drilling can be performed in a range of 20 to 45 ¡ã;
(3) Sufficient power to drill through the steep incline coal and rock strata uphill;
(4) A directional device is set in the drilling tool, which enters the hole with the drill rod, and plays a supporting and guiding role to ensure that the drilling is accurately in place;
(5) Both coal and rock holes can be drilled. Use coal drills when drilling coal holes and cone drills for rock drilling;
(6) Dedicated electrical control system can be configured as required. The electric control system is provided with a gas sensor, a gas alarm, a wind power lockout device, a dual-motor magnetic starter, etc., to protect and control the equipment and the environment to ensure the safety of the equipment and construction personnel.
(7) A long-distance control box is set up so that workers can operate the machine away from the orifice to avoid the damage caused by the collapse of coal and rock to the construction workers.
4 Downhole industrial test
ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig was conducted in underground industrial test at Moxinpo Coal Mine of Tianfu Mining Bureau from February to August 1995. In combination with production needs, two open-cut coal seams and one gas transmission hole were constructed. Test one ventilation hole.
4.1 Construction of open-cut coal seams
The drilling site is located in the South 9 Shimen K8 coal seam at a level of -10 m underground, with a vertical height of 90 m and an oblique length of 96 m. The thickness of K8 coal seam is 1.2 m, the inclination angle is 65 ¡ã, the Platts coefficient of coal seam f = 1 to 1.5, and the gas content of coal seam is 11.56 m3 / t, which is dangerous for gas outburst. The opening position is located in the middle of the K8 coal seam. The rig is installed at an inclination angle of 67 ¡ã, the drilling diameter is 300 mm, and the drilling depth is 96.6 m. It is completed in 3 small shifts with a maximum footage of 58 m and a reaming diameter of 600 mm. It is completed in 5 small shifts. , The maximum footage of the class is 33 m.
Figure 2 Cut-out construction arrangement
a—Use ZD-150 drilling rig; b—No drilling rig
4.2 Construction of gas transmission holes
A gas delivery hole is constructed next to the dark shaft at the -115 m horizontal bottom yard. The bore diameter is 311 mm, the vertical height is 101.5 m, the oblique length is 105 m, and the inclination angle is 84 ¡ã. The borehole is located in the limestone limestone next to the dark shaft. In order to drill in layers, the rock ’s Platts coefficient f = 8 ～ 10, and locally reaches f = 12. It is completed in 10 small shifts, and the maximum shift length is 18.4 m. 3.
4.3 Effect comparison
4.3.1 Comparison of the economic benefits of sharp cut coal seam opening and manual operation
The ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig is used to construct an open-cut coal seam 96.6 m. Compared with manual work, the construction time is shortened from 4-5 months to 1.5 months, saving about 2.5-3.5 months in the construction period. As a result, the working face was put into production ahead of time, and more than 20,000 tons of raw coal were produced. The additional output value (indirect benefit) was about 2 million yuan, and the cost savings were about 68,000 yuan (direct benefit).
Table 1 Comparison of construction cut-out costs
| Fee name || Large Aperture Drilling Rig Construction || Manual construction |
| Support material || - || 60 000 yuan |
| Labor cost || 2 700 yuan || 26 000 yuan |
| Water, electricity and fuel costs || 4 080 yuan || 15 000 yuan |
| Drilling and blade material costs || 6 250 yuan || - |
| Depreciation of machinery || 20 000 yuan || - |
| Aggregate || 33 030 yuan || 101 000 yuan |
4.3.2 Comparison of Economic Benefits of Gas Transmission Holes and Pipeline
The construction of a gas transmission hole of 106 m saves 216 m of pipe material compared to a steel pipe with a diameter of 310 mm erected from an inclined shaft, which directly saves about 90,000 yuan, and also avoids damage to the gas pipeline due to accidents such as sports cars. Maintenance, long-term benefits, and indirect benefits are incalculable. See Table 2 for details.
Table 2 Comparison of economic benefits
| Fee name || 311 mm rock hole || Steel pipe |
| Labor cost || 2 700 yuan || 1 371 yuan |
| Water, electricity and fuel costs || 5 120 yuan || - |
| Drill fee || 10,000 Yuan || - |
| Rig depreciation fee || 20 000 yuan || - |
| Flange material cost || - || 15 694 yuan |
| Bolt material cost || - || 2 120 yuan |
| Pipe material cost || - || 107 525 yuan |
| Aggregate || 37 820 yuan || 126 710 yuan |
4.3.3 Comparison of security status
ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig is used for the construction of steeply inclined coal and rock layers uphill, such as opening engineering holes, and workers are away from the orifice to avoid accidents such as spray holes, roof falls, coal and gas outbursts during manual construction. The hazard effectively guarantees the safety of the construction personnel. At the same time, the borehole connects the air inlet lane (or machine lane) and the return air lane to form a complete ventilation system, which effectively improves the ventilation and safety conditions at the construction site. Because the drilling is equipped with supporting safety equipment, no safety accidents have occurred during the construction. The resulting social benefits are far-reaching and difficult to measure with economic benefits.
(1) Reasonable selection of drilling rig parameters, high transmission efficiency, reasonable and novel structure design, good processing quality, compact structure and good stability.
(2) ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig is used to construct steeply inclined coal and rock layers to go up the mountain, such as opening holes for engineering holes. While greatly improving the construction speed, it provides a better safe working environment for the construction staff and effectively reduces The occurrence of security accidents.
(3) The successful development of the rig has opened up a new way for the steep digging of coal and rock layers in China's coal mines. It has opened up a new way. It has become possible to use manual drilling to replace the steep digging of coal and rock layers, providing a new type of coal mine with high efficiency. Applicable safety equipment. The popularization and use of ZD-150 large-aperture drilling rig in China's coal mines will surely achieve a wide range of social and economic benefits.